Jale Erzen Exhibition: ‘Resim Dünyamda Bir Gezinti’

Hey everybody, few weeks ago I visited a really nice painting exhibition which  was called ‘Resim Dünyamda Bir Gezinti’ in AnkaSanat in Ankara. The painter is my favorite professor in college who is Nejdet Jale Erzen. She is an incredible person. She is also really famous in Ankara about painting. I really got many knowledge from her  art course. I consider myself lucky! Check it out …


this photo is from here

ARCH 221 · Architecture

The Best Emperor From Good Ones : Hadrian And His Architectural Meaning written by Leyla Yildiz

In history, The Roman Empire accomplished many works especially as military. Before Christian era, the emperors of Rome made many eforts for their lands. They always tried to make their zones enlarged. They did not pay attention to their people. Almost all emperors did the same implementations on the community. They had oppressive and cruel prosecutions. There were many downtrodden people included slaves etc. Also, especially before Christianity some emperors and their dynasties were wasteful and unfair. Besides, while the emperors were striving to extend their countries’ boundaries, they did not give consequence to their cultural ligacy, civilization and development of people too much. Furthermore, there were always a confict when every emperor changed in some periods. Thus, it created important problems and unpleasant occurrents. While they were dealing with these kind of problems and other army works, they could not give interest to the other important necessities of a country.

However, after christ especially from 96 AD to 192 AD five important and prospering emperors ruled to the Roman Empire. These emperors had very significant values and importances. Because, they were different from the other usual emperors. They had some efficient qualities.First of all, they have not oppressive regime on their people, their politics were more moderate. Their names were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius and were called as “five good emperors” [1] This ‘good’ word has many important meanings.It does not mean just successful, it has also something more about feeling. They were more well natured, and also they had more and social awareness, artistic qualities. Especially, in Trajan times art had the highest development in Rome and there were some sculptures which were tried to recreate with the information from Greek statues. [2] But, in time the sculptures started to be very successful. Especially, after Hadrian Emperor imperial portraiture which were very unruffled and ageless, started to seem more intimate.[3] They became more realistic and emotional. The eyes of a portrait and postures started to give more feeling and their realistic expression were something about soul. There is  a really meaningful statement about that point. According to philosopher Plotinus beauty is not about body but it is related with soul. “ Ugly is that which has no soul “ [4] For instance, after Hadrian’s lover Antinous died, his statues looked unsimiling and contemplative young face.[5] These kind of structures show Hadrian’s  elegy. The face and eyes were not seem as just a painted work of art. There is something about more emotional sense.

Thus, after these kind of sculpturing works, artistic feautures of Rome developed more. Besides, in the times of Trajan, sculpturing in Rome became more advantageous, because of the busts of emperors and the column of Trajan. This column were made by marble and it has many cultural and historical meanings. On the surfaces of this column there many stories about the success of Trajan’s Dacian Wars. There are varius aspects of this column’s design and it gives a kind of monumental sense. This huge and very significant art work and the other statues were just a begining of this artistic and architectural progress of Rome.

Emperor Maximinus Thrax                                 The Column of Trajan

Besides, with Trajan Roman architecture developed in a very well way. “Rome become a city of Magnificent public buildings. While it is true that the Romans obtained their chief ideas of architectural beauty from the Greeks, it is a question whether Athens, even in the time of Pericles, could have presented such a scene of imposing grandeur as did Rome in the time of Trajan and Hadrian, with its forums, temples, aqueducts, basilicas, palaces, porticoes, amphitheaters, theaters, circuses, baths, columns, triumphal arches, and tombs. “ [6]Thus, it shows that Roman architecture and art works get the upper hand in the world after Augustus times. This period became just an avant garde for other huge works.

According to some resources, the art of Rome was not a unique quality until the second century. It was a syntheses of other countries. However, in the second century Rome started to have it’s own work of art.[7] Then, this period show the Hadrian’s time. Hadrian is the best emperor because he gave the  bigest contribution to the human history in many sense. Publius Aelius Hadrianus  was the third one of the five good emperors. He was different even the previous fine emperor who is Trajan. Trajan paid attention to the extending lands of Rome more. Then, Roman Empire had the bigest borders in it’s history. However, Hadrian follow different way for his country’s well being. His attitude was more peaceable and tranquil. He could save his country without fighthing. He used his other personal skills.

It was really important statement why Hadrian was very beloved emperor even if today. There are many structures and artisctic works for him. In every piece of Roman lands, there are some signs or indicatians about him. Even after centuries, many different cultures share  Hadrian’s works in Egypt, Europeni, Anatolian and other countries. For all these things, he had very significants skills and qualities. He was not just an soldier or emperor. He was also a poet, philosopher and architect. He gave his interests to these fields too much rather than others. ” In some respects he was similar to Trajan, with the same generous spirit and desire for the welfare of the people, and with the same wish to add to the architectural splendor of Rome. He was, like Trajan, a friend of literature and a patron of the fine arts.” [8] Hadrian could manage his country in a very well way from a distance. He always traveled in the Roman lands. He tried to find out different spaces in the different cultures. While he was treveling, he always leave some kind of structures and cultural legacies in every places that he visited. Moreover, people from these places present many different structural and historical things to their emperor for him. He chosed making a great contribution to his people and developing cultural inheritance rather than enlarging the boundaries more. Because, people do not need a bigger land, they need culture, kind of monumental things and especially a morale more and free rights rather than slavery. In his period, Roman civilization was at its best, it’s highest stage of developement.[9]

While he was doing his art work, he always saved Greek culture and supported literature and art. “Hadrian was a man of wide learning who, it was said, spoke Greek more fluently than Latin. He was a patron of art, literature, and education, and a benefactor of the needy poor.”[10] Additionally, Hadrian was interested in architecture too much, there is a large number of structure in every edges of Roman Empire that he made. For British people, He has a very special meaning, because he made a very strong wall which separete Scotland from England. This wall was very important and useful, because it protected Rome from the wild attacks. It is one of the most important historical richnesses in the world.[11] This wall was not just for defensing, it also showed the North borders of England and then, it was customs and assessment point. Hadrian’s  Wall was 73 miles and was built in 5 miles stretches, with seventeen forts which were called ‘milecastlest’ were built every mile and between them there were signal turrets. [12] Even if this wall was just for defensing, it has some meanings about the emperor and his time. This kind of huge wall show also Hadrian’s power as an emperor to the other different countries and also to the inside. It is useful but also this structure is a show of strength. Now, this wall leaved a trace and impressed in the world from one end to the other.

From one of Hadrian’s traveling, there was a very well and important architectural structure which is Hadrian’s Gate in Antalya. The people built it for Hadrian’s visit and their passing to the their city. It has three arched Gates. There is a really significant ornamentation on it’s surfaces. This white and marble arches refers to classical architecture a bit. Also, the appearance of it  gives a sense to a huge entering. Besides, it has some cultural imformation on it’s surface like a historical tablet. Hadrian Temple is also one of the arched structures in honour of Hadrian in Efes and Kyzikos. These historical structures have very important means. Arches are really relate to the ancient ages and Rome. Stories on the surfaces always  make their culture alive.

      Efes Hadrian Temple                                 Kyzikos Hadrian Temple

Hadrian was very interested in Ancient Greece. He always tried to refer Greek  architectrure and combine with his structure. “He was a very important figure in Greece where he was considered a visionary emperor who loved Athens, and made it more beautiful with architectural masterpieces like the arch of Hadrian, the library and the aqueduct. Nicknamed ‘Graeculus’ or ‘the little Greek’, Hadrian adored all things sophisticated and Greek and became an ardent friend of the Greek people. He displayed his interest in a number of benefactions to cities and individuals alike.”[13] The Villa Adriana at Tivoli is also an example of combination of Hellenism and Classicism. This considerable heritage has some syntheses of different cultural relationships and elements included Rome, Greece and Egypt. This villa shows his inner world, emotions and thoughts. This space is kind of his ideal city. In addition, it has very potential and superbly sited collection.It has sparkling imaginative qualities and very well designed ways. However, according to Spiro Kostof, Hadrian’s Villa reads like an elegy because of tragic memories for his lover.[14]

Besides, Hadrian was very emotinaol and fell in love with Greek Antinous.After Antinous died in Nile River tragically, he made his lover a god.[15] After that, he found a city in Egypth then he gave Antinous’ name to the this city. Moreover, he also found another city too which was called Adrianapolis (Edirne in Turkey) So, from all them it is clear that he gave many contributitions to Roman civilization and architecture.

In addition to all these, he gave many structures more then these works. There are many religious structures included Venus and Rome, Olimpian Zeus Ttemples. Mausoleum of Hadrian was also the most important building between them. Actually, all of them show the importance of cultural legacy  that Hadrian gave. His works and architectural movement affected the others which are the next ones. Even if he ruled just for 20 years in Rome, he tried to show his best effort and coul achieve Roman architecture and urbanization besides defensing his country. This very important point make him the best emperor among all the Roman emperors. Thus, he deserved the whole warm attention  from his people and future civilizations.


ARCH 241 · Architecture

A Modern Dynamic Structure: Milwaukee Art Museum written by Leyla Yildiz

A Modern Dynamic Structure: Milwaukee Art Museum written by Leyla Yildiz 

There is an impressive building in every sense in the world. An outstanding creativity was used on this structure. It’s a spectacular product of high technology and genius engineering. In addition to this, it became a very artistic work rather than being just a structure. Besides, it’s an expression of movement and change. It’s form is alive and dynamic. Thus, all of these descriptions indicate one building which is Milwaukee Art Museum. It was designed by Santiago Calatrava. It is located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. This museum receives thousands of visitors in every year. Interestingly, it exhibits it’s own structure as well as exhibiting many historical and cultural artifacts. This museum has a coast on lake Michigan and it has a very well coherence with it’s environment.

Originally, the structure of this museum was built as just two-floor and a war memorial by Eero Saarinen in 1957. This very modernist architect used space dramatically. After that, David Kahler created a bigger space for this museum in 1975. He connected the museum to the city with a concrete bridge. Then, Calatrava designed a new addition which is called Quadracci Pavillion inspired by soaring birds, sailboats and the lake in 2001, which links to a boulevard with a pedestrian bridge.

Spanish architect Calatrava is also a civil engineer, sculptor and painter. Actually, on this amazing structure there are many effects of his engineering. Because, it is not just a common building. It shows the dramatic combination of architecture and engineering. Moreover, it refers to many artistic sculpture. According to a resource, Calatrava always wanted to find the statement of dynamism and make forms movable and changeable since his childhood.        He tried to think of ways to give sense of movement to the objects and solve this paradox. He wanted to design dynamic and collapsible structures rather than following the fixed architecture rules about being stable and steady. This structure shows many impressions of art and natural forms. For instance, it looks like the forms of foldable bird wings designed by Leonardo Da Vinci. Also, it has many resemblances of human arm.

When we mention about the whole building, it is a really compatible construction with it’s context. It has a number of facts about sea inspired by the locaiton which is to the lake. It looks like yachts and sailboats, and also it’s steely wings remind flying seagulls. The movement of steel wings indicate sea wave. Moreover, the form of cable bridge looks like a sail. Then, it’s color is same with the seagulls, sails and has a relationship with the surrounding structures.

The whole structure consist of white steel and concrete. Steel is the most durable element in construction materials. Therefore, wings, bridge and the other structural systems are connected to eachother in a very strong way. There is a suspended bridge which connects to the pavillion and gets support from it. This design of bridge refers to very basic structural shelter tents. It uses tension and stress forces. In this bridge there are compression forces on the steel pylon and deck to the foundations like the pavillion. Also the steel cables (tension elements) stress the bridge. Thus, it becomes durable. Besides, there is an abutment like boomerang which resists the suspension bridge’s pulling force. Framing of glass ceiling and building spine rest on the pavilion and the back stay beam. The leaning elements on the glass framing (wings) are connected to the building spine. And then, this spine and the bridge’s pylon are parallel to eachother. They are bending 48.36 degrees towards to the pavillion.

On the glass ceiling, brise-soleil and movable elements were used. It looks like bird’s body. There is a spine in the middle and two very flexible wings are attached to it. Each of these wings have 36 rectangular sticks. They are also made of steel element. They are framing the sun light. It changes it’s own angle according to the sun. A hydraulic system in the middle controls these wings. They moves according to the external forces like wind load and thunderbolt. When there is a really strong wind, the wings roof the glass facade. These steel wings create a very nice ambience (light and shadow) indoor space. And also, these wings break the greenhouse effect that glass surfaces create inside. This ceiling were made of huge and curved glass surfaces which are supported with steel elements. Besides this facade gives a very well landscape to the lake.

The load transportation in the pavillion building is like on this cross section’s sketch.


In this image, some forces and other important structural processes were clearly showed. Red color indicate the largest bending moment on the structure. Green diagram shows where shear forces are at the highest level. And the all load transportation and forces were balanced in a very genius way.


This structure is very functional. It has many public spaces in a very well design. There is parking floor in underground. Then,in the lower floor, there are some meeting space, terrace and restaurant. In the main floor, there are many different spaces like reception hall, exhibition hall, lobby and terrace. It’s also ground level. In the mezzanine floor (Calatrava’s additon)  there is a connection with the bridge. There is lobby, board room and existing galleries. All these exhibition spaces, terraces, cafes, stores, auditorium and parking area create very useful and equipped public space. Besides, under the bridge a public space (like a garden) was created. People can use also this area.

To sum up, Calatrava designed a very dramatic structure by using the convenience of the context, his extensive engineering knowledge and artistic skills. It looks like a flying bird to the lake. It has very emotional sense. To my way of thinking, these kind of architecture works and arcihtects should be encouraged and supported. Then, the structures arround us could be very modern and inspirational rather than being very common high buildings.


Greene R., (2013), How Santiago Calatrava Blurred The Lines Between Architecture and Engineering To Make Buildings Move, Archdaily, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from

Calatrava’nın Kanatları, (2010), Mimdap, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from

Nichols, A., (2004), Example Case Study: Milwaukee Art Museum, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from

Quadracci Pavillion, (n.d.), Milwaukee Art Museum Info, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from

Architecture, (n.d.), Milwaukee Art Museum Info, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from

PS: The hand sketches are belong to me. The other images and Leonardo Da Vinci’s drawings are from google images.