Category Archives: ARCH 121

The relations between art and architecture and their social and historical context.

Cinnah 19 : A Modern Apartment by Leyla Yildiz

Hi everyone 🙂 This article is my final assignment in the ARCH121. It is about a really famous apartment in Ankara.

caution_tape_coffee_mug-r5ab8a6fb39d248489d8ef428dc76c653_x7jlv_8byvr_512

CAUTİON!  It is long a little bit.. Maybe you should take a coffee before reading it.

CINNAH 19: A Modern Apartment       Leyla Yildiz

It is said that many developments started to happen in the architectural thinking and trends after the Second World War. Especially, western architecture were affected by many trends. In europe, Le Corbusier was explored again and someone like him were imitated.When we mention about Turkish Architecture in that era , it is obvious that the architectural trend changed and an architecture current which look for a solution with freestanding styles  replaced The Second National Architecture Current especially between the years 1950 and 1960. So, many architects claim that a modernist approach started to active and the style of Turkish Architecture became international and contemporary. There is an impressive example of that period which is Cinnah 19 in Ankara. It’s exact name is ‘Meydanlar Müdürlüğü Kooperatif Apartmanı’ (The Cooperative Apartment of Airports Management). This structure that has overtones of modernist approach was built in 1957 by Nejat Ersin(1924-2010).

When we talk about it’s architect he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts. He said that modernist thought in the field of architecture affected him excessively and followed this current during his student life.Then, he started to work for the Airport Management in 1953, after he worked in some private offices and The Ministry of Defence. He achieved many successes with his projects and won some competitions.I think that he is a really important architect for Turkish architecture because in many articles it was written that he helped for  the installation of The Chamber of Architecture and contributed it greatly and also, for him it is said that he had a big role in the field of the organisation of architecture discipline. Additionally, he had different and modern ideas rather than the other architects. That’s why, he had an important position in terms of contemporary architecture. You can see it’s traces easily on the Cinnah 19. It is said that this apartment is stil unusual. If we talked about this building generally, it resides in 19th number in Cinnah Street in Ankara. It is perpendicular to the street. It has 17 apartments and 15 of them are dublex. Each of them have a comfortable and large environment. Also, it has a small social facility on it’s terrace and a garden at the back. It is definiteley obvious that it is not common around us.

Although many buildings were designed for some competitions, this structure was built for commissioning in that period and there was a system which is called cooperative system started to be very common and numerous domiciles were built with huge investments by different cooperatives. People get into partnerships and invest to be homeowner in these cooperatives. According to Ali Cengizkan who is an architect, in the period of owning a house in this way the qualifications of communities get an association so, the qualifications included education, special interests, origin, the age of family and having children, which determine the living environment of houses get a privity and combination thanks to the cooperatives. Cinnah 19 also was built by a cooperation which is called the Construction Cooperative of Airports Management.While Nejat Ersin, other architects and engineers were working for Airport Management, they constituted this cooperation and started to do this project. Nejat Ersin took a big responsibility for it and he managed this project. The clients of this apartment were he and his partners who are architects and engineer. According to Nejat Ersin, his partners wanted him to built a remarkable and impressive structure and not to imitate other cooperative apartments. It was known that each of the cooperative buildings in Ankara looked like same in that period. Even today, cooperative apartments have same constructions and apperances. Many architects or owners of these buildings don’t care about the qualificaitons of living environment and collective puposes. Therefore, he tried to design a different apartment considering the requests of his clients. Actually, he was able to achieve this manner and built a modern apartment rather than similar cooperative buildings. In other words, we can realize that it had a significant value and was extraordinary when we compare it in that time because of the fact that this apartment was built by using modern and european manners.

Nejat Ersin clearly said that he was inspired from the currents of international architecture while he was searching for this project and Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, Edward Durrel Stone were sources of inspiration for him while he was designing that. For instance, there is a really famous a building Unité d’Habitation in Marseille which was built by Le Corbusier. This structure was built for it’s users and communal life style with a contemporary approach. It’s surface was divided in the shape of grate and it has large windows and balconies and it stands on piloti. Also, it has a huge terrace which is very functional.There is a recreational facility on this terrace. Nejat Ersin’s apartment has all of these qualifications. In the terrace of Cinnah 19, there is a swimming pool, fireplace and  an American bar for the apartment residents. Ersin said that I tried to create an environment and peaceful space which is used collectively.

Unité d’Habitation (*1)

01_corbusier_unite01  Cinnah 19 (*2)

3ed70e075661439b9649ab76e763ebc5-480x268

It is written that, Le Corbusier built wide range of apartments which have different volumes and placed some dublex ones between these houses. However, Ersin couldn’t design it same because of the fact that this apartment was for a cooperative. It requires that all members and Ersin have equal rights. So, the valumes of all houses and their shapes must have been same. That’s why, he designed each of these apartments as dublex with equal dimensions. According to Ersin, one of the most important reasons of this choice is to present a warm atmosphere and natural home environment to homeowners. Besides, he was affected by English architect Stone. He wanted to use white and concrete grills like Stone who used concrete grills for his all structures. Ersin used them on some fronts of the apartment and wanted to give a spectacular and impressive view to it. Actually, he managed it since today, while people are walking in front of this building, they still look at it as surprised and impressed.Also, this appearance give textural qualities and it is known that they are refractor units. They create a harmony by using light and shadow. Moreover, there is an another refactor which is like a grill in the terrace. So, they show that these are funtional parts of this structure as well as a small social facility in terrace.

Ersin told the reason of being free while he was building it. He acted like this because the owners of it were architects and engineers. In addition, while Ersin was designing this project, he used simple forms instead of complicated forms which are illegible. So, again it probably shows that Ersin fallowed in Le Corbusier’s wake since he always defended that pure and geometrical forms should be used by architects. Here, there are some sketches that I drew, which show the basic units in Cinnah 19.

Besides, the concrete grills which Ersin used have simple rectangular forms whereas Stone used them in different forms.

The concrete grills in the hallway

DSCF4176

One of their’s patterns

DSCF4162

Also, the pilotis of this structure evoked the buildings which are famous in western architecture. For example, huge pilotis were used for Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye and again Unité d’Habitation, Lucio Costa’s Gustavo Capanema Palace. Also, the forms of these buildings and the like which are very basic and geometrical evoke the physical appearance of Cinnah 19.

Furthermore, this building is more readable compared to other apartments. To illustrate, it has some important qualities such as continuity and also, horizontality and verticality were used properly and clearly. The windows of it are in the same alignment along the whole length of the structure. In other words, there is a continuity in that part also, the concrete grills were combined by using an aligned proportion. So, when they were pieced together, the units which repeat themselves took shape and continuity became visible. Also, the grills were used in the hallways of each floors. Thus, this upholstery became a view which is grouped instead of the fact that it sheed whole surface of the structure at full length. Besides, there is an extremely important quality which is rhythm in terms of architecture and, it enables the structure to seem readable. Being a harmony makes buildings strong and legible. In Cinnah 19, the architect created a rhythm on the north side of it. The balconies were placed as asymmetric with a harmony.

MYSCAN_ - Copy - Copy

MYSCAN_ - Copy - Copy - Copy (2)

When we talk about the relations of this construction with the urban context, it’s adaptation with the environment clearly shows itself. It was built without damaging and disturbing to the topography. Even though it was constructed on a curved land, anything was not changed. Alternatively, some pilotis were used. Actually, in order to build a structure the ground can be changed and converted to a straight land. Some architects have done this however, Ersin didn’t prefer this way. There are some famous examples of this situation in the international arena like Falling Water House and Villa Malaparte.

The Axonometric Drawing of Cinnah 19 (*3)

kmh

Also, it is said that there was a mosque which is near to this building and the material of the mosque was similar to the grills of the apartment. Thus,  it also shows that there is an adaptation and rapport with the environment .

In the beginning phase of the construction the prime minister of that period had done some alteration in public works. After Nejat Ersin started to do this Project, the elevation of the way which is in front of this apartment were raised. Therefore, Nejat Ersin had to change something on this plan. He added one more floor which did not include dublex houses in the basement. Actually, according to Ersin, this situation became a solution since the cooperative had difficulty financially, even though they  started to built it by the help of credit. So, they could sell this floor and contribute this project. Also, Nejat Ersin and his friends had more difficulties like this situation while building it. For instance, Ersin said that he got concrete grills manufactered and it caused a lot of work. According to him, he made an maximal effort throughout his life, due to the fact that this and other similar reasons happened and also, he attached importance to this project. Even, for this apartment Ersin said that this building is the most important construction and it is like my child. Actually, it was admired and appreciated by many architects such as Ali Cengizkan as well as it’s architect. Some conversations were organized and articles were written about this building since this apartment have symbolized modern architecture and it is said that it showed a communal prosperity and gave an importance to  the manner of collective life. Even, Ali Cengizkan examined if Cinnah 19 is utopic or real modern in his article. Morover, other people in that time liked and approved it. Ersin said that in the construction period of it , some students and professors who came from METU came to see it and it is proud. Also, at universities architecture professors have still gived some homework about this building to their students. Even, in his interview he said that The President of the Republic Celal Bayar and The Prime Minister Adnan Menderes  of that time interested it and they wanted to expropriate the environment of it when they saw a mosque which had similar structural quality with Cinnah 19 close by. However, due to some administrative reasons, it did not work. Therefore, afterwards other structures were built in front and at the back of it. Unfortunately, the old  view of it became erased a little bit.

Additionally, it is said that  after the owners of the apartment started to reside , they used the swimming pool and other collective areas well.  However, after a few years the cooperative members started to leave from there so, different people moved to it and especially foreign people startet to live there. In time, the terrace became bad and incommodious. It is normal because if a structure was built  for the client as special, it is more suitable that it is used by only the first owners because  the condititons are favorable for them and they appreciate the value of the areas of the usage more. Today, this apartment is in bad repair. For instance, the terrace is extremely neglected and not used anymore. There are many  breaking downs and fracture on the some parts of it’s surfaces especially on the side of north. Besides, numerous structures have built around it. Now, the environment of it isn’t empty and natural as before. Maybe, in the future it will lose it’s apperance and value in time.

References

Images:

(1*) http://www.brutalismus.com/e/?/concept/

(2*) http://www.yapi.com.tr/Yazdir/mimarlar-dernegi-1927-cinnah-19daki-yeni-merkezinde-106530

(3*) http://dergi.mo.org.tr/dergiler/4/553/8278.pdf

Others:

http://dergi.mo.org.tr/dergiler/4/553/8278.pdf

http://dergi.mo.org.tr/dergiler/4/553/8277.pdf

http://www.mimarlikdergisi.com/index.cfm?sayfa=mimarlik&DergiSayi=287&RecID=1632

http://www.mimarlarodasiankara.org/41calrap/index.php-Did=4109.htm

http://dergi.mo.org.tr/dergiler/4/553/8279.pdf

http://v2.arkiv.com.tr/m1210-nejat-ersin.html

PS: The photos and sketchs which haven’t got  a reference belong to me.

 

Advertisements

Self- criticism about dissolved project after the pre-jury

Hi everyone:) Today, I will talk about my dissolved project and criticize it’s processes  in the light of what I learned from preliminary jury and by using the information that I got in Arch121. These critics are extremely important  since they will help me to do final project. So, I can be ready for final jury.

This is the photo of my model.

IMG_3815

Before anything else, I want to mention about the beginning of my project.  I have worked on my model for a month. Before I made the model of preliminary jury, I didn’t choose a theme for the project. Thus, I really sweated while making this model. I couldn’t decide easily what should I do. For instance, I couldn’t find rules for the processes. Then, my professor advised me to find the dominant action and choose a theme. So, I tried to understand my model’s actions and I realized that it has many extended addings which combined each layers. Then, I decided to design my processes according to these extended planes. Hence, I gave a name which is amalgamation because the extended planes make it look as a whole and combined.

After the body music workshop which was given by Özgü Bulut, I understood that grouping is very important for a structure. Therefore, I used  main lines in my structure to extend. The lines grouped the all structure. However, I realized that I missed a very important thing at that point after the jury critics. The professor in the pre-jury criticized my extended plane because all of them looked same and they hadn’t many variations. However, I got information about it from Arch121 and studio discussions. So, I  knew that variations should be in a structure but I missed it for grouping planes. So, they should be in different dimensions. Also, the professor asked me why I didn’t merge them again. Maybe, they could be folded and intersect a layer again. Also, they criticised the directions of extended planes.  The main lines in my model were only in a direction. I understood that actions shouldn’t be in the same direction. We should also use the processes in different directions. Actually, some folded planes on first layer were also in a same direction. So, again at that point they haven’t any variations about that. Thus, I should have understood completely that there weren’t top, bottom, left or right side because the model is three dimensional. At the same time, we can’t talk about a vertical or horizantal plane about the processes.

Besides, I got information about rhythm from Özgü Bulut and my professor Bilge İmamoğlu in Arch121 class. İmamoğlu showed us a building which have a rhythm and balance. He uttered some musical notes. By using this way, he showed us that every structure have a harmony and rhythm, so architecture is like music. For this reason, I tried to create a rhythm in my model. Especially, I used it on second layer. I had some rhythmic planes like AB, ABABC, ABABCC. Then, I folded them. When I talked about my folded planes, I had some rules. Actually, I had three different folding ways. But there was a same rule for all foldings about the locations that they were folded. However, while I were doing this, I missed a point about their intersections. The folded planes which are on second layer  and third layer didn’t intersect the first layer. The professors in jury criticized that. They said that first layer should have merged with other layer by using folded planes. So, my extended planes weren’t enough to merge them.

There is also very important thing about this model. Before dissolved project, we cut some parts of non-transparent layer in order to show some planes. Then, my friends and I used it again for this model. However, we shouldn’t have done it. Because, the previous model was just two dimensional. So, we can’t use this action for three dimensional models. The cut planes also were in our structure. They couldn’t get lost. So, we should use them in the model. Also, I couldn’t dissolved it sufficiently. The professors said that the model shouldn’t seem as layers. All layers should be dissolved and all planes should intersect something.

Briefly, I can say that I realized my mistakes for this project. One of them is very important and critical which is about merging enough. I have already started to merge them and corrected the mistakes. I hope, I will be able to achieve it and final jury will be better.

Adolf Loos: “Ornament and Crime”

Hi everyone:)

Last week I read an article which is ‘Ornament and Crime’ written by Adolf Loos who is critic about modernism of architecture. Now, I will give some information about this text. This text examines the value of ornament and the author defines ornament as a crime.             First of all, at the beginning of this text he gives comparative examples about crime. He mentions about a Papuan man. Although he kills his enemies and eats them, he is not criminal. However, if a modern man kills someone and eats him, he becomes a criminal and degenerate. Besides, in old times people were creating erotic figures. Even the first artistic act was erotic which is a woman figure on the wall. That wasn’t a crime but if the man of our day smears a wall with erotic symbols, he also becomes a criminal and degenerate. For all these reasons, the author says that ornament in the field of architecture wasn’t a crime in old eras but in modern times it is bad even a crime. He tries to say that in the past all of these and ornaments were necessary and normal for people. They were doing that unconsciously but today ornament is too redundant and waste for many things. For instance, it is waste of money since fashion always changes and people want different and new things which are suitable for new styles. Therefore, they spend much money again and again. So, people have become poorer day by day. Moreover, he says that ornament is waste of energy and labor force. Also it is waste of time. Furthermore, he tries to tell us that ornaments haven’t utility. It is not functional for architecture and it is an unnecessary thing for people.

To my way of thinking, ornament is generally necessary and good thing because people can’t live with just simple and plain things. They need more actions and energy to feel comfortable and refurbished. Colorful, flamboyant and full decorations give energy to people. Ordinary and same things bore people. So, at this point I don’t agree with the author. However, I partly agree with some points which is about waste of money and labor force. I think people shouldn’t do excessive ornaments because it spends too much money unnecessarily. If  they really need them, they should do this. Also unnecessary ornaments use labor face uselessly.

References:

Loos, Adolf. “Ornament and Crime” in: Conrads, Ulrich (ed.) Programs and Manifestoes on 20th Century Architecture, The MIT Press, 1975.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Loos

The Elements of the City Image

Hi:)

Today, I want to talk about an article which is ‘The City Image and its Elements’  written by Kevin A. Lynch and exemplify with my city that I live. First, Lynch mentions about public image of a city, it’s physical forms and their social meaning for people. He defines that they are individual images and classifys the physical elements. There are five types of it.

  • Path
  • Edge
  • District
  • Node
  • Landmark

Now, I will identiyf them and give an example in my city Ankara, Turkey for each elements.

1.Path

It is kind of channel which a observer moves. Paths can be streets, walkways, transits, lines, canals or railroads. These are the predominant elements in image of many people. While people are moving through the city , they can observe it and the environment. For example, Ziya Gökalp street defines it well. You can observe the most important part of Ankara while you are moving on it.

196-F

Ziya Gökalp Street, Ankara

From: http://www.geolocation.ws/v/P/75344954/ziya-gkalp-caddesi/en

2. Edge

It is a linear element and  boundary between the two different phases. It has continuity. Actually, edges are not as dominant as paths, but they are important organizing fearures. It is like an outline of a city by water or wall. As you see here, Dikmen Valley is a huge example of edge in Ankara. It separates Dikmen as two areas in Ankara.

MTM2OTQ3MT-cankaya-dikmen-vadisinde-icradan-13-daire-satiliyor

Dikmen Vadi (Dikmen Valley), Ankara

From: http://emlakkulisi.com/cankaya-dikmen-vadisinde-icradan-13-daire-satiliyor/138634

3.District

It is large section of the city which is recognizable and identifiable from the outside. It shows the character of city. For example Hamamönü is the best example for it. The area have own character with  many buildings. All hauses look same.

hamamonu

Hamamönü, Ankara

From:http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Middle_East/Turkey/Central_Anatolia/Ankara/Ulucanlar/photo776577.htm

4.Node

It is point as strategic in a city into which an observer can enter. Nodes may be junstions, places of a break in transportation, moments of  shift from one structure to another and crossing or convergence of paths. These points are essential for the areas which comes important to people.

KizilayMeydani

Kızılay Square, Ankara

From: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-MQcAGvsEVx4/UYZtI7jIOUI/AAAAAAAAABI/IIJHzde4T9Q/s400/KizilayMeydani.Jpeg

5. Landmark

It is also a point reference of the city. However, while observers are moving , they don’t enter within it. Landmarks turn into a symbol of the city in time. It  can be building, sign, store or mountain. They may symbolize a constant direction such as towers and great hills. Anıtkabir is the most important landmark of Ankara.

2567346-anitkabir

Anıtkabir, Ankara

From: http://www.fotokritik.com/2567346/anitkabir

Reference:

Lynch, Kevin. “The City Image and its Elements” Image of the City. Cambridge and London: The MIT Press, 1960. pp. 46-90.

Experiencing Architecture

Hi everybody:)

Today, I want to talk about a text which is Basic Observations in: Experiencing Architecture written by Steen Eiler Rasmussen. In this text some relations between architecture and other arts and  the importance of experiencing and observations in the field of architecture are mentioned.

First of all, the author defined architecture as fine art and it is compared with other arts such as painting and sculpture. They are appeal to the eye. An architect works with forms and masses and also a sculptors play with them and they use geometrical shapes. Besides, architects work wtih colors like painters. However, there is a big difference between them. Architecture is functional and produces practical solutions for people and their lives but sculpture isn’t functional. Other arts haven’t any utilities. Furthermore, the author says that architecture is produced by ordinary people for ordinary people. So, it should be comprehensible. He also defined architect as a theatrical producer.

One of the main points in this text is experiencing. According to the author, architecture and art should be experienced. Experiencing is really important for architecture since you can get information about architectural things like thanks to it. He gave an example about it. A child who play ball game experienced basic elements, planes. Also, a child can be aware of textures of various materials with the help of experiences. He can easily have an idea about tautnessslackness like slack and heavy lines. These are also about observations. People can see the  impressions of the surface character of materials like softness, hardness, heaviness and lightness.We can see  the important difference between fired clay, crystalline stone without touching thanks to observations. According to him, if you want to experience architecture, you must be aware of all these elements.

Reference

Rasmussen, S.E. ” Basic Observations” in: Experiencing Architecture, Chapman & Hall, 1959, pp.9-34

The key point is Rhythm for a structure

Now, I want to mention about my all experiences and analysises about structure which is the most important thing in the field of architecture. Since I have started to study at architecture, I have observed many points about it. We visited the Doğan Printing Centre,  joined Özgü Bulut’s  body music workshop  and we read ‘Music and Mathematics as Models’ by Kari Jormakka and ‘Regulating Lines’ by Le Corbusier. I have mentioned about  all of them before. Then, we also read another article about structure which is ‘Space and Structure’ by Simon Unwin. As you know, I shared a video ‘Beethoven’s 5th Symphony’ yesterday. This is also related to structure. After all of these, I realized that there must be rhythm in architecture. This is the common and key point.

In order to build a structure , architects should consider rhythm and harmony first. After that, other things can be ordered regularly. In other words, if you  want to create a structure, you should follow the rhythmic way and then you can create a balance on your  structure. As Le Corbusier  said , there must be a harmony. He say that it can be provided just by using geometrical shapes. Also he tried to explain his idea with regulating lines. All geometrical forms and regulating lines create a harmony and balance. Jormakka also tried to say the same thing but he used different perspective which is music. It is an inspiration for creating a structure. For instance, if you listen to a musical structure such as Beethoven’s symphonies, you will realize a balance, regular ordering, continuity and rhythm. So there should be a organisation and relation between the elements. Unwin also mentions about the similar things. He tried to explain his ideas with continuity, having a balance and relations. He mentions about  a harmonic relationship , while he is explaining the space and structure. He said that space or sructure can be dominant singly or they are in harmony with each other. Also, the Greek Architecture is given as an example by Unwin to show the harmony, continuity.

Additionally, while we were observing the printing , we saw that there is a continuity and repetitions clearly. These repetitians create a rhythm again and again. Also, all operatians in the printing centre show variatian, differentiantion and grouping. So, all related to harmony.When we talk about the body music lecture, you can also say that there is again rhythm and ordering. While we were thumping out , we understood that there are many repeatitions and variations in a structure. So, we can say that a song or musical creation and buildings are structure one each.

Briefly, the all experiences and observatians show that there should be rhythm for structures. Then, other important points including continuity,space,repetitions, ordering, grouping and organisation follow the rhythm.

Leyla YILDIZ

Rhythm

 

94_livarna_akrapovic_si3

From: http://isaenglish3.wikispaces.com/Rhythm

References:

  • Unwin, S. “Space and Structure”, Analysing Architecture, London and New York: Routledge, 1997. pp. 129-137.
  • Le Corbusier. “Regulating Lines” . Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publication , 1986 (originally 1931). pp. 65-88.
  • Jormakka, Kari. “Music and Mathematics as Models” . Basics Design Methods. Basel: Birkhauser, 2007 . pp. 20-32.
  • Observations in Doğan Media Printing Centre.
  • Observations from Body Music Workshop by Özgü Bulut.

Beethoven’s 5th Symphony

Hey, I want to share a video. It is really enjoyable. Last week, our teacher shared this video in the Arch 121 class. He tried to show rhythm and the connection between musical rhythm and  architecture. I liked it 🙂 Then I started to listen it again and again. Sometimes, my sister and my housemate say that Leylaa, it is enough and turn off!.  🙂