I mean architecture students! 🙂
I want to mention about an international summer school in Latvia. In the past, I wrote that I participated in RTU & FOLD’s architectural programme last summer. It was an amazing and very efficient experience. In this summer, it will be repeated with an different name ‘Arcadia’ which starts on July 25 and ends on August 8, 2015. It will be located in a very well place: Cesis. It’s a peaceful and lovely small town. There are many green areas and the buildings are really nice. I recommend this summer programme strongly. Especially, if you are an architecture student, that will be a great experience for you by means of efficient lectures, studio works, mapping, dinner programmes, architectural trips and other entertainments etc. By the way, if you participate in this programme, you should stay in Riga for at least 3 days, because it’s an amazing city! There are many social activities to do and fantastic structures and spaces to see. I loved latvian architecture!
So, don’t think to much and go there! Deadline is 3rd of May for application.
“Escape the rush of the city and become a happy citizen of ARCADIA! The Summer School of 2015 is now open for applications.
When hardly any place on our planet is left untouched, we especially value the remaining natural areas and strive for fresh air, clean water, luscious greenery and organically produced food. For the frustrated urbanite, a rural town seems to be the refuge, promising unspoiled nature and an idyllic lifestyle, as well as the basic amenities of a city.
What does a modern day Arcadia entail? Does it accommodate urban agriculture, water management, wildlife reintroduction, ecotourism, well–being of the body and the mind? Can we imagine giving up an urbanised territory to the forces of nature? Is today’s Arcadia economically and socially sustainable?”
For more information:
Now, I’ll mention about the first proposals of my final project of this semester. It consists of just my first ideas. First of all, I wanted to make interactive spatial conditions in my house. The previous scenario wasn’t changed, still there are two permanent subjects: industrial designers who design small decorative furnitures. I didn’t want to isolate housing and working area. I tried to make an very experiential space. I want people and spaces have relationships between eachother by means of transparent surfaces and different rectangular forms. There is one common space in the open space (courtyard). Privacy in this house is approaching to this experiential space. The all private areas make a connection with this space. So, it creates a circulation between working and living spaces. By the way, in the east part of the ground level of this house there is a continuity and transparency throughout the that zone. So, users can always have a control of their house and experience during the whole day. The other details of these ideas are written in the diagrams.
Here, there are some drawings and diagrams of my proposals that I presented in the first pre-jury. (The scale of all drawings is 1/200)
This the site plan:
Elevations and sections;
This is the concept model;
There is a densier condition in my composition.These densier conditions have effects on the side spaces.
Hi there, some weeks ago we went to an excellent village located in Fethiye in Mugla. It’s an amazing city and it is near the Ege Sea. Village’s name is Kayaköy. It consists of two different settlement. There are many historical houses there which were built in 19th century. They were set on the slopes and they creat a great view!
When I talk about why we were in Kayaköy, we went there to learn how to make a relievo of an old building. First, we drew just it’s outline without measurement and then, we used some different tools to measure the exact dimensions and levels. When we came back to school, we redrew them in AutoCAD.
After that our professor actually wanted us to produce a restaurated structure in an really old building. We didn’t touch the original and existing construction. If you remember the our final project of this semester, we tried to make a workshop for our industrial designers who comes from our scenarios. We assumed that they go to Kayaköy to work for four months. So, we tried to design a workshop house for them according to existing spatial conditions.
Here there are some photos of the house that our professors chose;
In my proposal, the construction that I designed is located inside of existing structure. I used concrete walls and glass which enclose inside. I didn’t use any methods of completing the existing walls or other elements. But, I use the information of that old building. For instance, I extended the structure in hollow parts of existing building. And also these parts create another and experiential space in outside. The whole structure consists of simple rectangular forms. In the entrance there is a huge box which is transition space; staircases and it’s surface which is front of the studio parts is transparent to make a visual sense and interaction with that working area. Also, there is a terrace in the service space of old building. In this space at the ground level there is also open space; courtyard. By the way, I used sliding and transparent door not to prevent transition spaces and to create a continuous permeable spaces.
These are the plans of each floors, elevations and section drawing;
This is the site’s plan (vicinity);
In history, The Roman Empire accomplished many works especially as military. Before Christian era, the emperors of Rome made many eforts for their lands. They always tried to make their zones enlarged. They did not pay attention to their people. Almost all emperors did the same implementations on the community. They had oppressive and cruel prosecutions. There were many downtrodden people included slaves etc. Also, especially before Christianity some emperors and their dynasties were wasteful and unfair. Besides, while the emperors were striving to extend their countries’ boundaries, they did not give consequence to their cultural ligacy, civilization and development of people too much. Furthermore, there were always a confict when every emperor changed in some periods. Thus, it created important problems and unpleasant occurrents. While they were dealing with these kind of problems and other army works, they could not give interest to the other important necessities of a country.
However, after christ especially from 96 AD to 192 AD five important and prospering emperors ruled to the Roman Empire. These emperors had very significant values and importances. Because, they were different from the other usual emperors. They had some efficient qualities.First of all, they have not oppressive regime on their people, their politics were more moderate. Their names were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius and were called as “five good emperors”  This ‘good’ word has many important meanings.It does not mean just successful, it has also something more about feeling. They were more well natured, and also they had more and social awareness, artistic qualities. Especially, in Trajan times art had the highest development in Rome and there were some sculptures which were tried to recreate with the information from Greek statues.  But, in time the sculptures started to be very successful. Especially, after Hadrian Emperor imperial portraiture which were very unruffled and ageless, started to seem more intimate. They became more realistic and emotional. The eyes of a portrait and postures started to give more feeling and their realistic expression were something about soul. There is a really meaningful statement about that point. According to philosopher Plotinus beauty is not about body but it is related with soul. “ Ugly is that which has no soul “  For instance, after Hadrian’s lover Antinous died, his statues looked unsimiling and contemplative young face. These kind of structures show Hadrian’s elegy. The face and eyes were not seem as just a painted work of art. There is something about more emotional sense.
Thus, after these kind of sculpturing works, artistic feautures of Rome developed more. Besides, in the times of Trajan, sculpturing in Rome became more advantageous, because of the busts of emperors and the column of Trajan. This column were made by marble and it has many cultural and historical meanings. On the surfaces of this column there many stories about the success of Trajan’s Dacian Wars. There are varius aspects of this column’s design and it gives a kind of monumental sense. This huge and very significant art work and the other statues were just a begining of this artistic and architectural progress of Rome.
Emperor Maximinus Thrax The Column of Trajan
Besides, with Trajan Roman architecture developed in a very well way. “Rome become a city of Magnificent public buildings. While it is true that the Romans obtained their chief ideas of architectural beauty from the Greeks, it is a question whether Athens, even in the time of Pericles, could have presented such a scene of imposing grandeur as did Rome in the time of Trajan and Hadrian, with its forums, temples, aqueducts, basilicas, palaces, porticoes, amphitheaters, theaters, circuses, baths, columns, triumphal arches, and tombs. “ Thus, it shows that Roman architecture and art works get the upper hand in the world after Augustus times. This period became just an avant garde for other huge works.
According to some resources, the art of Rome was not a unique quality until the second century. It was a syntheses of other countries. However, in the second century Rome started to have it’s own work of art. Then, this period show the Hadrian’s time. Hadrian is the best emperor because he gave the bigest contribution to the human history in many sense. Publius Aelius Hadrianus was the third one of the five good emperors. He was different even the previous fine emperor who is Trajan. Trajan paid attention to the extending lands of Rome more. Then, Roman Empire had the bigest borders in it’s history. However, Hadrian follow different way for his country’s well being. His attitude was more peaceable and tranquil. He could save his country without fighthing. He used his other personal skills.
It was really important statement why Hadrian was very beloved emperor even if today. There are many structures and artisctic works for him. In every piece of Roman lands, there are some signs or indicatians about him. Even after centuries, many different cultures share Hadrian’s works in Egypt, Europeni, Anatolian and other countries. For all these things, he had very significants skills and qualities. He was not just an soldier or emperor. He was also a poet, philosopher and architect. He gave his interests to these fields too much rather than others. ” In some respects he was similar to Trajan, with the same generous spirit and desire for the welfare of the people, and with the same wish to add to the architectural splendor of Rome. He was, like Trajan, a friend of literature and a patron of the fine arts.”  Hadrian could manage his country in a very well way from a distance. He always traveled in the Roman lands. He tried to find out different spaces in the different cultures. While he was treveling, he always leave some kind of structures and cultural legacies in every places that he visited. Moreover, people from these places present many different structural and historical things to their emperor for him. He chosed making a great contribution to his people and developing cultural inheritance rather than enlarging the boundaries more. Because, people do not need a bigger land, they need culture, kind of monumental things and especially a morale more and free rights rather than slavery. In his period, Roman civilization was at its best, it’s highest stage of developement.
While he was doing his art work, he always saved Greek culture and supported literature and art. “Hadrian was a man of wide learning who, it was said, spoke Greek more fluently than Latin. He was a patron of art, literature, and education, and a benefactor of the needy poor.” Additionally, Hadrian was interested in architecture too much, there is a large number of structure in every edges of Roman Empire that he made. For British people, He has a very special meaning, because he made a very strong wall which separete Scotland from England. This wall was very important and useful, because it protected Rome from the wild attacks. It is one of the most important historical richnesses in the world. This wall was not just for defensing, it also showed the North borders of England and then, it was customs and assessment point. Hadrian’s Wall was 73 miles and was built in 5 miles stretches, with seventeen forts which were called ‘milecastlest’ were built every mile and between them there were signal turrets.  Even if this wall was just for defensing, it has some meanings about the emperor and his time. This kind of huge wall show also Hadrian’s power as an emperor to the other different countries and also to the inside. It is useful but also this structure is a show of strength. Now, this wall leaved a trace and impressed in the world from one end to the other.
From one of Hadrian’s traveling, there was a very well and important architectural structure which is Hadrian’s Gate in Antalya. The people built it for Hadrian’s visit and their passing to the their city. It has three arched Gates. There is a really significant ornamentation on it’s surfaces. This white and marble arches refers to classical architecture a bit. Also, the appearance of it gives a sense to a huge entering. Besides, it has some cultural imformation on it’s surface like a historical tablet. Hadrian Temple is also one of the arched structures in honour of Hadrian in Efes and Kyzikos. These historical structures have very important means. Arches are really relate to the ancient ages and Rome. Stories on the surfaces always make their culture alive.
Efes Hadrian Temple Kyzikos Hadrian Temple
Hadrian was very interested in Ancient Greece. He always tried to refer Greek architectrure and combine with his structure. “He was a very important figure in Greece where he was considered a visionary emperor who loved Athens, and made it more beautiful with architectural masterpieces like the arch of Hadrian, the library and the aqueduct. Nicknamed ‘Graeculus’ or ‘the little Greek’, Hadrian adored all things sophisticated and Greek and became an ardent friend of the Greek people. He displayed his interest in a number of benefactions to cities and individuals alike.” The Villa Adriana at Tivoli is also an example of combination of Hellenism and Classicism. This considerable heritage has some syntheses of different cultural relationships and elements included Rome, Greece and Egypt. This villa shows his inner world, emotions and thoughts. This space is kind of his ideal city. In addition, it has very potential and superbly sited collection.It has sparkling imaginative qualities and very well designed ways. However, according to Spiro Kostof, Hadrian’s Villa reads like an elegy because of tragic memories for his lover.
Besides, Hadrian was very emotinaol and fell in love with Greek Antinous.After Antinous died in Nile River tragically, he made his lover a god. After that, he found a city in Egypth then he gave Antinous’ name to the this city. Moreover, he also found another city too which was called Adrianapolis (Edirne in Turkey) So, from all them it is clear that he gave many contributitions to Roman civilization and architecture.
In addition to all these, he gave many structures more then these works. There are many religious structures included Venus and Rome, Olimpian Zeus Ttemples. Mausoleum of Hadrian was also the most important building between them. Actually, all of them show the importance of cultural legacy that Hadrian gave. His works and architectural movement affected the others which are the next ones. Even if he ruled just for 20 years in Rome, he tried to show his best effort and coul achieve Roman architecture and urbanization besides defensing his country. This very important point make him the best emperor among all the Roman emperors. Thus, he deserved the whole warm attention from his people and future civilizations.
- Akbar, A., (2008), Hadrian The Gay Emperor, Retrieved 17 January,2015 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/hadrian-the-gay-emperor- 769442.html para.8
- Elevli,N., (2008), İngilizler Hadrian’ı Bizden Önce Gördü, Milliyet,Retrieved 17 January, 2015 from http://www.milliyet.com.tr/Pazar/HaberDetay.aspx?aType=HaberDetay&Kategori=pa zar&KategoriID=&ArticleID=996738&Date=28.09.2008&b=Ingilizler%20Hadriani% 20bizden%20once%20gordu%20http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/scotlandshisto y/caledonianspictsromans/hadrianswall/index.asp para2
- Following Hadrian, Exhibition: “Hadrian and Greece” at Villa Adriana, (2014), Retrieved 17 January,2015 from http://followinghadrian.com/2014/04/09/exhibition-hadrian-and-greece-at-villa-adriana-from- 9-april-to-2-november-2014/ para.3
- Kostof, S., (2010), A History of Architecture, Chapter 11, page 246
- Morey, William C. (1901), Outlines of Roman History, Chapter XXVI p.1
- Roma’nın Tarihçesi, (n.d) , Retrieved January 17, 2015, from http://www.merhabaroma.com/tarihce.php para.7
- Strickland,C.,(2001) The Annotated Arch: A Crash Course in the History of Architecture, p33
- The Five Good Emperors, (n.d) Retrieved 17 January, 2015 from http://www.the-romans.co.uk/good_emperors.htm, para.5
A Modern Dynamic Structure: Milwaukee Art Museum written by Leyla Yildiz
There is an impressive building in every sense in the world. An outstanding creativity was used on this structure. It’s a spectacular product of high technology and genius engineering. In addition to this, it became a very artistic work rather than being just a structure. Besides, it’s an expression of movement and change. It’s form is alive and dynamic. Thus, all of these descriptions indicate one building which is Milwaukee Art Museum. It was designed by Santiago Calatrava. It is located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. This museum receives thousands of visitors in every year. Interestingly, it exhibits it’s own structure as well as exhibiting many historical and cultural artifacts. This museum has a coast on lake Michigan and it has a very well coherence with it’s environment.
Originally, the structure of this museum was built as just two-floor and a war memorial by Eero Saarinen in 1957. This very modernist architect used space dramatically. After that, David Kahler created a bigger space for this museum in 1975. He connected the museum to the city with a concrete bridge. Then, Calatrava designed a new addition which is called Quadracci Pavillion inspired by soaring birds, sailboats and the lake in 2001, which links to a boulevard with a pedestrian bridge.
Spanish architect Calatrava is also a civil engineer, sculptor and painter. Actually, on this amazing structure there are many effects of his engineering. Because, it is not just a common building. It shows the dramatic combination of architecture and engineering. Moreover, it refers to many artistic sculpture. According to a resource, Calatrava always wanted to find the statement of dynamism and make forms movable and changeable since his childhood. He tried to think of ways to give sense of movement to the objects and solve this paradox. He wanted to design dynamic and collapsible structures rather than following the fixed architecture rules about being stable and steady. This structure shows many impressions of art and natural forms. For instance, it looks like the forms of foldable bird wings designed by Leonardo Da Vinci. Also, it has many resemblances of human arm.
When we mention about the whole building, it is a really compatible construction with it’s context. It has a number of facts about sea inspired by the locaiton which is to the lake. It looks like yachts and sailboats, and also it’s steely wings remind flying seagulls. The movement of steel wings indicate sea wave. Moreover, the form of cable bridge looks like a sail. Then, it’s color is same with the seagulls, sails and has a relationship with the surrounding structures.
The whole structure consist of white steel and concrete. Steel is the most durable element in construction materials. Therefore, wings, bridge and the other structural systems are connected to eachother in a very strong way. There is a suspended bridge which connects to the pavillion and gets support from it. This design of bridge refers to very basic structural shelter tents. It uses tension and stress forces. In this bridge there are compression forces on the steel pylon and deck to the foundations like the pavillion. Also the steel cables (tension elements) stress the bridge. Thus, it becomes durable. Besides, there is an abutment like boomerang which resists the suspension bridge’s pulling force. Framing of glass ceiling and building spine rest on the pavilion and the back stay beam. The leaning elements on the glass framing (wings) are connected to the building spine. And then, this spine and the bridge’s pylon are parallel to eachother. They are bending 48.36 degrees towards to the pavillion.
On the glass ceiling, brise-soleil and movable elements were used. It looks like bird’s body. There is a spine in the middle and two very flexible wings are attached to it. Each of these wings have 36 rectangular sticks. They are also made of steel element. They are framing the sun light. It changes it’s own angle according to the sun. A hydraulic system in the middle controls these wings. They moves according to the external forces like wind load and thunderbolt. When there is a really strong wind, the wings roof the glass facade. These steel wings create a very nice ambience (light and shadow) indoor space. And also, these wings break the greenhouse effect that glass surfaces create inside. This ceiling were made of huge and curved glass surfaces which are supported with steel elements. Besides this facade gives a very well landscape to the lake.
The load transportation in the pavillion building is like on this cross section’s sketch.
In this image, some forces and other important structural processes were clearly showed. Red color indicate the largest bending moment on the structure. Green diagram shows where shear forces are at the highest level. And the all load transportation and forces were balanced in a very genius way.
This structure is very functional. It has many public spaces in a very well design. There is parking floor in underground. Then,in the lower floor, there are some meeting space, terrace and restaurant. In the main floor, there are many different spaces like reception hall, exhibition hall, lobby and terrace. It’s also ground level. In the mezzanine floor (Calatrava’s additon) there is a connection with the bridge. There is lobby, board room and existing galleries. All these exhibition spaces, terraces, cafes, stores, auditorium and parking area create very useful and equipped public space. Besides, under the bridge a public space (like a garden) was created. People can use also this area.
To sum up, Calatrava designed a very dramatic structure by using the convenience of the context, his extensive engineering knowledge and artistic skills. It looks like a flying bird to the lake. It has very emotional sense. To my way of thinking, these kind of architecture works and arcihtects should be encouraged and supported. Then, the structures arround us could be very modern and inspirational rather than being very common high buildings.
Greene R., (2013), How Santiago Calatrava Blurred The Lines Between Architecture and Engineering To Make Buildings Move, Archdaily, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from http://www.archdaily.com/321403/how-santiago-calatrava-blurred-the-lines-between-architecture-and-engineering-to-make-buildings-move/
Calatrava’nın Kanatları, (2010), Mimdap, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from http://www.mimdap.org/?p=44610
Nichols, A., (2004), Example Case Study: Milwaukee Art Museum, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from http://www.solaripedia.com/files/979.pdf
Quadracci Pavillion, (n.d.), Milwaukee Art Museum Info, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from http://mam.org/info/details/quadracci.php
Architecture, (n.d.), Milwaukee Art Museum Info, Retrieved January 3, 2015 from http://mam.org/info/architecture.php
PS: The hand sketches are belong to me. The other images and Leonardo Da Vinci’s drawings are from google images.
Today, I want to mention about a construction trip and my observations. Two weeks ago, our professor Onur Yüncü who is the lecturer of Arch 241 course took us to a construction yard. This construction is located in Anatolian Organized Industrial Zone in Ankara. It consists of complex buildings. We observed it’s administrative building. It’s architects are Onur Yüncü and Ayşen Savaş. They are really successful architects and they have worked for METU for many years. They have many awarded projects. Onur Yüncü is working for TEDU now. He is one of our professors in college. This project was designed in a year and it has built for one and half years. Let’s talk about this building.
This building was designed for management, actually it’s kind of a main building of that zone. It’s a really observable structure to understand constructional system of a building because the structural processes and other stuff are transparent and obvious. This building is located in a very natural area. It has gren environment. Also there is small lake. That’s why, the users wanted architects to design a nature compatible structure rather than the other high and common official buildings. Actually, the users wanted a single-floor building which looks like a ranch house. But, architects realised that they need one more floor up in a part. This building consists of three parts. Actually they have just one single floor except one part. It has three floor. One of them is underground floor. Also, it has one more floor up because there is an administration part and there are some chairmans’ offices . That’s why they need to be in higher part of that building. In the first floor, there are many offices, convention halls and some meeting and entrance parts. These parts create a U shape. Then, there is a courtyard between them. The another part next to the others has dining hall, kitchen and also there are some important rooms which have the systems of electricity, heating, water and other stuff. Here, there are some images of this project.
These images are from http://www.onuryuncu.com/files/OY-M_Tanitim_2014-02_web.pdf
When we talk about the appearance of the whole building, it looks modern and more natural. It hasn’t many glass surfaces. It has some wooden elements, so it creates a natural and warm view. It looks like a house. The whole building is sitting on the stone floor. On that, there are reinforced concrete columns and then wooden roof. The whole structure is displayed as visual. Processes aren’t hidden. Besides,the huge horizontal facades were balanced by using some vertical wooden surfaces. These stone and wooden elements are harmonizing with the environment. There are many basic rectangular elements which consist of glass, wooden and other surfaces. So, there is always a continuity on the facade.
Inside of the building, we could observe the structural system easily. This building has two different structural system. One of them is scissoring in the main part and the other one is classical post structure, also it has just a concrete ceiling. From the protocol to ther other part, this system is changing. And this transition is visible, one is beamed flooring (with wooden) and the other one has no beam. Concrete combines with the scissoring. It also show the transiton between single floor and two-floor structure (except underground floor) There are also hinges between two different parts which are sitting on the different places (topographical). The hinges which are between two different parts are called dilatation like separating (called ‘dilatasyon’ in Turkish) It consists of foam. The wooden beams carry the roof and also there are some another beams which support the main beams (bearer). They are called ‘aşık’ in Turkish. They generally passes frequently and they are not strong and thick like the main beams. On the wooden ceiling there are some kind of heat insulation and roof tile. Besides, the carrying system built and designed that building, and some walls end somewhere according to the this system. So, all spaces were controlled and designed with this system. Moreover, this structural system repeats and then it creates a rhythm inside. By the way, inside of the building wooden element also was used for some coatings and benches. Some electricity cable and kind of these stuff were hided with the wooden covering. And some walls were built with red bricks. So all of them create a warm space inside too.
Dilatation, separation between two different part
The thickness of the columns are generally 35 cm. And they located in horizontal direction with some gaps 5 or 7 metres. And this process repeats after every 4 metres in other direction. When the height of the building increases, the thicknesses of the columns also increase. Also, the lowest one is 2.5 metres and the highest one is 3.5 metres. These tall columns are near to the entrances from parking area and courtyard. They, create the monumental appearance in the entrance.
Besides, when every surfaces end, there is always a gap (hinge) between the other surfaces. For example,when a column end in the roof there is a gap between them. It is the same with the ground. Also, hinges show the differentation of materials and surfaces.
Glass surfaces in this building make the spaces wide and sunlit. It can easily use the day light. Also, people can experience the natural environment when they are in this building. In the corridor between the dinning room and other parts there are some windows which were located in different elevations on the wall. So, all of them create different experiences. Besides, dining room was located in a very far from the protocol part because of the food smell and also, it was surrounded with glass surfaces. So, this situation doesn’t make this space closed and it looks light-well. By the way, in some rooms there are some inside windows. They provides privacy and create a connection between the other spaces in the building. For instance, during a meeting people can close this window with sliding wooden surfaces or they can observe the other when it is open. The offices in the second floor have also huge glass surfaces. These rooms have small resting rooms and bathrooms. In front of these offices there is terrace which looks to the small lake. So it creates a very well view. By the way, in front of the assembly room there is huge space. So, they provides a resting and waiting opportunity.
Besides, there is an also extension from the first floor of the protocol parts. It’s direction is also to the lake. There is a connection between this balcony and outside with staircases.
The courtyard between the U shape will be a warm space with wooden. The iron elements will be covered with wooden and then water can flow between the wooden element then it will flow from the concrete floor to the land. By the way, in the entrance of the protocol part there is a well designed and modern staircases. It’s a really dynamic element, and this part is trying to a make a sense for the entrance. This is really important.
By the way, the main entrance with a hall opens to the parking area. So, people can easily pass to it. When we look at the whole building, it is obvious that it remains it’s naturalness and coherence with the environment.