The Elements of the City Image


Today, I want to talk about an article which is ‘The City Image and its Elements’  written by Kevin A. Lynch and exemplify with my city that I live. First, Lynch mentions about public image of a city, it’s physical forms and their social meaning for people. He defines that they are individual images and classifys the physical elements. There are five types of it.

  • Path
  • Edge
  • District
  • Node
  • Landmark

Now, I will identiyf them and give an example in my city Ankara, Turkey for each elements.


It is kind of channel which a observer moves. Paths can be streets, walkways, transits, lines, canals or railroads. These are the predominant elements in image of many people. While people are moving through the city , they can observe it and the environment. For example, Ziya Gökalp street defines it well. You can observe the most important part of Ankara while you are moving on it.


Ziya Gökalp Street, Ankara


2. Edge

It is a linear element and  boundary between the two different phases. It has continuity. Actually, edges are not as dominant as paths, but they are important organizing fearures. It is like an outline of a city by water or wall. As you see here, Dikmen Valley is a huge example of edge in Ankara. It separates Dikmen as two areas in Ankara.


Dikmen Vadi (Dikmen Valley), Ankara



It is large section of the city which is recognizable and identifiable from the outside. It shows the character of city. For example Hamamönü is the best example for it. The area have own character with  many buildings. All hauses look same.


Hamamönü, Ankara



It is point as strategic in a city into which an observer can enter. Nodes may be junstions, places of a break in transportation, moments of  shift from one structure to another and crossing or convergence of paths. These points are essential for the areas which comes important to people.


Kızılay Square, Ankara


5. Landmark

It is also a point reference of the city. However, while observers are moving , they don’t enter within it. Landmarks turn into a symbol of the city in time. It  can be building, sign, store or mountain. They may symbolize a constant direction such as towers and great hills. Anıtkabir is the most important landmark of Ankara.


Anıtkabir, Ankara



Lynch, Kevin. “The City Image and its Elements” Image of the City. Cambridge and London: The MIT Press, 1960. pp. 46-90.


Experiencing Architecture

Hi everybody:)

Today, I want to talk about a text which is Basic Observations in: Experiencing Architecture written by Steen Eiler Rasmussen. In this text some relations between architecture and other arts and  the importance of experiencing and observations in the field of architecture are mentioned.

First of all, the author defined architecture as fine art and it is compared with other arts such as painting and sculpture. They are appeal to the eye. An architect works with forms and masses and also a sculptors play with them and they use geometrical shapes. Besides, architects work wtih colors like painters. However, there is a big difference between them. Architecture is functional and produces practical solutions for people and their lives but sculpture isn’t functional. Other arts haven’t any utilities. Furthermore, the author says that architecture is produced by ordinary people for ordinary people. So, it should be comprehensible. He also defined architect as a theatrical producer.

One of the main points in this text is experiencing. According to the author, architecture and art should be experienced. Experiencing is really important for architecture since you can get information about architectural things like thanks to it. He gave an example about it. A child who play ball game experienced basic elements, planes. Also, a child can be aware of textures of various materials with the help of experiences. He can easily have an idea about tautnessslackness like slack and heavy lines. These are also about observations. People can see the  impressions of the surface character of materials like softness, hardness, heaviness and lightness.We can see  the important difference between fired clay, crystalline stone without touching thanks to observations. According to him, if you want to experience architecture, you must be aware of all these elements.


Rasmussen, S.E. ” Basic Observations” in: Experiencing Architecture, Chapman & Hall, 1959, pp.9-34

The key point is Rhythm for a structure

Now, I want to mention about my all experiences and analysises about structure which is the most important thing in the field of architecture. Since I have started to study at architecture, I have observed many points about it. We visited the Doğan Printing Centre,  joined Özgü Bulut’s  body music workshop  and we read ‘Music and Mathematics as Models’ by Kari Jormakka and ‘Regulating Lines’ by Le Corbusier. I have mentioned about  all of them before. Then, we also read another article about structure which is ‘Space and Structure’ by Simon Unwin. As you know, I shared a video ‘Beethoven’s 5th Symphony’ yesterday. This is also related to structure. After all of these, I realized that there must be rhythm in architecture. This is the common and key point.

In order to build a structure , architects should consider rhythm and harmony first. After that, other things can be ordered regularly. In other words, if you  want to create a structure, you should follow the rhythmic way and then you can create a balance on your  structure. As Le Corbusier  said , there must be a harmony. He say that it can be provided just by using geometrical shapes. Also he tried to explain his idea with regulating lines. All geometrical forms and regulating lines create a harmony and balance. Jormakka also tried to say the same thing but he used different perspective which is music. It is an inspiration for creating a structure. For instance, if you listen to a musical structure such as Beethoven’s symphonies, you will realize a balance, regular ordering, continuity and rhythm. So there should be a organisation and relation between the elements. Unwin also mentions about the similar things. He tried to explain his ideas with continuity, having a balance and relations. He mentions about  a harmonic relationship , while he is explaining the space and structure. He said that space or sructure can be dominant singly or they are in harmony with each other. Also, the Greek Architecture is given as an example by Unwin to show the harmony, continuity.

Additionally, while we were observing the printing , we saw that there is a continuity and repetitions clearly. These repetitians create a rhythm again and again. Also, all operatians in the printing centre show variatian, differentiantion and grouping. So, all related to harmony.When we talk about the body music lecture, you can also say that there is again rhythm and ordering. While we were thumping out , we understood that there are many repeatitions and variations in a structure. So, we can say that a song or musical creation and buildings are structure one each.

Briefly, the all experiences and observatians show that there should be rhythm for structures. Then, other important points including continuity,space,repetitions, ordering, grouping and organisation follow the rhythm.







  • Unwin, S. “Space and Structure”, Analysing Architecture, London and New York: Routledge, 1997. pp. 129-137.
  • Le Corbusier. “Regulating Lines” . Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publication , 1986 (originally 1931). pp. 65-88.
  • Jormakka, Kari. “Music and Mathematics as Models” . Basics Design Methods. Basel: Birkhauser, 2007 . pp. 20-32.
  • Observations in Doğan Media Printing Centre.
  • Observations from Body Music Workshop by Özgü Bulut.

Beethoven’s 5th Symphony

Hey, I want to share a video. It is really enjoyable. Last week, our teacher shared this video in the Arch 121 class. He tried to show rhythm and the connection between musical rhythm and  architecture. I liked it 🙂 Then I started to listen it again and again. Sometimes, my sister and my housemate say that Leylaa, it is enough and turn off!.  🙂

Fragmented -2

Now, I will tell about rhythm 🙂 Last week, we experienced a body music workshop with Özgü Bulut. It was really enjoyable. We thumped out. We understood how repetition, variation and change can form the rhythmic whole. Then we combined the first assignment (abstract structure) with the information about body music that we got. We tried to focused on operations from abstract structure and reflected the repetitions, variations, changes and ruptures by producing 3 different visual compositions in the form of three layers. We used tracing paper and colored pen. 


I tried to show repetitions by hatching with brown pen on the right part and also showed the connections with each groups with pink pen. For example, first group is connected with second group and the first hatching (starts on the left part) ends on the last part of second group. Also, other pink hatching shows the connection between the second group and third group.

Thematic Photo Essay

After we learned about texture, we visited some places which are Cermodern, Central Railway Station and Mimarlar Derneği 1927 in Ankara to take photo. We observed and documented the textural differentiations caused by diverse light and shadow conditions. Then we made a poster which includes textural photos. While I was making this poster, I really sloged because choosing photo is really hard. I tried to create a composition with photos since it has to have a theme. So, while I was eliminate some photos, I felt sad because I really liked some of them. Whatever.. I finally made a thematic poster. It has some solid surfaces like concrete and stone.  When you look at this poster, you can see that textures are getting more specified on following photos.



Last week, we talked about what texture is. Our teacher tried to give some examples about it and I want to explain a bit. 

We can see the textural differentiations  thanks to light & shadow conditions. 

Look at this photo I took in Central Railway Station, Ulus in Ankara;


When you look at the left part of this photo, you can’t say about it’s texture. The texture of two different materias seem same. However, if you look at he right part, you can realize the textural differentiation by the help of light. So, we can say that the white surface is rough but the other surface is flat. 🙂