Today I’ll mention about my observations which talk about an useful exhibition in Ankara. It’s a great work. It’s name is ‘Sivil Mimari Bellek’ and it was exhibited in Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi . People from Başkent University with the supports of TÜBİTAK and VEKAM have done researches for 3 years for that. These studies are about civil architecture in Ankara. The years between 1930 and 1980 were considered. This period is extremely important because, the structures have featured significances. Project team worked on 120 buildings which represent many different architectural aspects and development of modernization in Ankara. Actually, it also show how architecture get change and it’s evolving in history. The objective of this study is that remarking on residential buildings, making their architects known and then revealing the cultural qualities and their contributions to inheritance in architectural sense. There were many photos, technical drawings and texts about these buildings on the sheets,some models. Classification in terms of periods was considered on it. With these works, the values of these constructions can be permanent and thus, the memory of civil arcitecture can be protected.
Now I’ll talk about my observations considering the stages separately. Let’s start with 1930s. This stage is a part of early republican period. It is really important, because it is a transiton time from the Ottoman to Republic Period of Turkiye. So, this stage has first modern and contemporary attempts in architecture. First, the structures have simple facades. There aren’t any ornaments on them. They are basic and unique buildings of modern period. When we look at the first half of 1930s, it is clear that this period is a really passing phase, because it has still the qualities of Ottomon architecture. It’s like a synthesis of these two different periods (Ottomon and Republic) They have some circular forms on their facades and inside. But also,they have other basic geometric forms. Firstly, the structures consisted of many different masses which have various dimensions and forms.
But then, they turn into one single mass especially in the second half of 1930s. In this era, buildings were multistorey rather than the earliest period of 1930s. They are taller and wider, that’s why they have a lot of flats, so they are generally for collective living like hostels. They are more all-purpose and functioning. They have long horizontal and vertical surfaces, so it creats linearity.
In 1940s early republic time still remains their effects in architecture. The buildings aren’t large and they are the examples of family-based. And they have some unique and unusual examples like Cemal Poyrazoğlu Apartment. They have again basic facade elements, but there is a development concerning design. By the way, from this period cooperative apartments had been started to built. The buildings of 1940s and the earliest period of 1952 look very similar. They have small forms and they are single or two- floor structures. They have a relationship with nature and their environment. They are more sincere, because they have gardens and they were built considering the topography like Mebusevleri and Kavacık Ucuz Subayevleri. They are more in touch with nature and they have rich and social living space and interaction.
Also, in 1940s and 1951 these buildings have some elements like columns in the entrances and garden of them. They bring very old styles like Rome to mind. This style is like an examples of neoclassicism.
There is an also very similar example which refers to neoclassical style. This structure is one of my favorites. . It’s name is Saadet Apartment. There are some columns with the huge balconies in the front facades. They creates a strong impact to the environment.
By the way, 1951 there are two different apartment which are different from the other in their time. They were again designed with simple forms but, they have some some trade functions. Their frontal layouts consist of very linear elements.
After the earliest period of 1950s, the structures started to have very similar forms and appearances. Modernization and contemporary architecture exactly started to seem in this period. Famous foreign architectural styles started to affect Turkish architecture. And the architects of this era in Turkey started to refer this styles. There are many examples of that in Ankara. For instance, Cinnah 19 is an example of them. It has many similarities with Le Corbusier’s Unite d’Habitation. By the way, I have an article about Cinnah 19. This is the link of it. In this article this influence and the architectural qualities of that period was clearly explained.
First photo is Cinnah 19 and the other one is Unite d’Habitation.
The structures of that period mostly consist of a single mass. And they have really basic geometrical forms. Also, generally they consist of horizontal and vertical elements. And then, on their facades there are some elements concerning different designs. The architects started to use light conditions on the surfaces like İsrailevleri, Sönmez Apartment and Cinnah 19 etc.
The huge and linear structures from 1950s continued to seem in 1960s too. In this period, architectural design was developed more especially on the facades of the buildings. Most of these buildings have a strong and horizontal effect. With the similar basic forms continuity was tried to remain on the facades. In some examples, the architects tried to break the uniformity and monotone surfaces in their buildings. They used different and organic elements, forms and materials. So, it created moving and dynamic facades. Also, some elements like balconies were located in different and obfuscatory places. That’s why, they created dynamism. By the way, some vertical elements were used in order to make a balance with the huge horizontal elements like balconies and windows. Therefore, in some buildings different semi-transparent elements started to be common. So, day light could be used in the buildings. They creates different light and shadow conditions. Especially, after Cinnah 19 many structures like that were started to built.By the way, in this period, some effects of rationalism style started to seem.
Some moving and flexible structures were continued to built in the late 1960s like Özkanlar Evi (Gemi Ev).
In 1970s the buildings have similar quailities like in 1960s. But, there is a really different structure in that period which is Teras Ev. This building were formed with the topography. It used the environment and spaces in a very well way. Also it has the quality of functionality with the terraces. It has a unique value in it’s period.
And then here, there some photos of the models from this exhibition;
The buildings’ photos are from http://sivilmimaribellekankara.com/